ART AUCTION GLOSSARY - Printmaking 
 
Printmaking:     Process in which a work can be recreated from a single image.
Intaglio Methods:      Intaglio includes the engraving, etching and drypoint methods of printmaking, and is produced via cuts made in a metal surface. These incised areas are then filled with ink and rolled through a press, thus transferring an image to paper. All intaglio prints have platemarks.
Aquatint:    In this intaglio method of printmaking, a porous ground coats a metal plate, which is then immersed in acid allowing an even biting of the plate. The resulting image has a grainy and textural effect. 
Chine Colle:     A chine colle print is created by affixing layers of thinner sheets of paper to a heavier sheet, and then making an intaglio impression. The thinner top sheets take the impression much more easily than a heavier paper, creating a sense of depth in the printed image, both physically and visually.
Drypoint:     Often used in combination with engraving or etching techniques, lines are scratched or gouged onto a metal plate creating a burr. The raised burr is quite pronounced and is not eliminated when printing, resulting in a heavier line than with engraving alone. 
Engraving:    The most popular of the intaglio methods of printmaking, an engraved print is created by scratching or cross-hatching into the surface of a polished metal plate. The plate is then inked, covered with a sheet of paper and run through a press. The areas of the plate which are incised print, transferring the final image to paper.
Etching:    Etching refers to the process of using acid to cut into a metal plate. After the plate has “etched”, it is covered with ink and run through the press revealing the etched image on paper.
Mezzotint:     In this method of printmaking the artist creates a dark base on a metal plate using a cutting instrument called a "rocker." Then, using a scraper, the artist burnishes the plate in the areas in which he desires to achieve a lighter color. Finally, the artist inks the plate and rolls it through a press topped with a piece of paper to create the final image. 
Mixed Method Engraving:    This is a method of intaglio printmaking which combines two or more methods.
Photogravure:    Developed in the 1830s by Henry Fox Talbot, photogravure is an intaglio printmaking process in which an image is transferred to a flat, etched copper plate, hand-inked and printed. 
Steel Engraving:    Steel engravings utilize plates composed of a harder metal, as opposed to the traditional copper plate. This method is preferable when creating designs intended for large editions as the plate will not degrade as rapidly.
Stipple Engraving:     Rather than etching lines, the design in this method of printmaking is created by applying large numbers of incised dots to the plate’s surface, similar to pointillism in painting.
Planographic Methods:    Planographic methods include all types of prints which are drawn on a flat surface and run through a press.
Lithography:    Lithography is a method of printmaking based on the concept of the repulsion of oil and water. In this process, the artist uses a grease-based chalk to draw an image on stone. An oil-based ink is then applied to the stones surface allowing the ink to stick to the greased areas of the stone. The stone is then inked, and the image is transferred to paper, after being run through a press. 
Chromolithography:     This term refers to any lithograph which is printed in color. A chromolithograph requires a separate printing for each color. 
Relief Methods:     A relief print is one when material such as part of a wood block, a piece of linoleum, a metal plate or other carvable material left in relief to be printed black and the remainder is cut away. 
Embossing:     Embossing is the process of creating an impression of an image that results in a raised surface. This can be done alone (blind embossing) or over an already printed image.
Linocut:    The linocut is a 20th century variation on the woodcut. It is created in the same manner, except that a piece of linoleum, which is soft and pliable, is used instead of wood.
Ukiyo-e:      Literally translated, this means "pictures of the floating world." An Ukiyo-e is a traditional Japanese woodblock print dating from the Edo period (1603-1867).
Woodcut: :    Woodcut is a printmaking method in which the artist works on a plank of wood, cutting away the parts of the design which are not to be printed. The wooden surface is then inked, covered with a sheet of paper and run through a press. 
Wood Engraving:    A wood engraving is a variation on the woodcut. Differing from a woodcut, it is done using the cut end of a piece of wood, as opposed to the plank side. Harder wood is typically employed to create a finer line in comparison to the soft, heavy lines associated with woodcuts.
Stenciling Methods:    This printmaking method refers to the principle of cutting or creating a hole in a protected surface and applying color through the hole to the surface beneath. 
Serigraph or Silk-Screen:    Serigraphs, also known as silk-screens, are created from a special type of stencil. A screen is made of porous fabric and stretched over a wood or aluminum frame. Parts of the screen are covered with non-permeable material forming a stencil. The areas which allow ink to pass freely create the final image, which can be printed on a number of different grounds, including fabric and paper. 
Pochoir:     Defined as "stencil" in French, a pochoir print is hand-colored and created with a series of carefully cut stencils. This method of printmaking was most prevalent during the early part of the 20th century in Paris and frequently used for fashion plates during the Art Deco period.
Monotype or Monoprint:    The monotype/monoprint incorporates both printmaking and painting, producing a single impression by using pressure to transfer a painted image to paper.


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